Computer supported cooperative work

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Istilah Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) pertama kali digunakan oleh Irene Greif dan Paul M. Cashman pada tahun 1984, pada sebuah workshop yang dihadiri oleh mereka yang tertarik dalam menggunakan teknologi untuk memudahkan pekerjaan mereka. [1]. Pada kesempatan yang sama pada tahun 1987, Dr. Charles Findley mempresentasikan konsep collaborative learning-work. Menurut [2], CSCW mengangkat isu seputar bagaimana aktivitas-aktivitas kolaboratif dan koordinasi didalamnya dapat didukung teknologi komputer. Beberapa orang menyamakan CSCW dengan groupware, namun yang lain mengatakan bahwa groupware merujuk kepada wujud nyata dari sistem berbasis komputer, sedangkan CSCW berfokus pada studi mengenai kakas dan teknik dari groupware itu sendiri, termasuk didalamnya efek yang timbul baik secara psikologi maupun sosial. Definisi yang diajukan [3] mempertegas perbedaan di antara dua konsep ini :

CSCW adalah sebuah istilah generik, yang menggabungkan pengertian bagaimana orang bekerja dalam sebuah kelompok dengan teknologi pendukung berupa jaringan komputer, Perangkat keras, Perangkat lunak terkait, layanan, dan teknik.

CSCW Matrix[sunting | sunting sumber]

Matriks CSCW

Salah satu bentuk umum konseptualisasi sistem CSCW adalah dengan mengamati konteks dari penggunaan sistem tersebut. Contohnya adalah matriks CSCW, yang diperkenalkan pertama kali pada tahun 1988 oleh Johansen; dan juga muncul pada [4]. Matriks dimaksud membagi konteks sebuah "work" ke dalam dua dimensi yakni waktu dan lokasi. Dimensi waktu dibagi menjadi kolaborasi yang dilakukan pada waktu yang bersamaan (sinkron), atau berbeda (asinkron). Dimensi lokasi dibagi menjadi kolaborasi yang dilakukan pada tempat yang sama, atau tempat yang terdistribusi.

Daftar makalah CSCW yang paling sering digunakan sebagai rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Dourish, P.; Bellotti, V. (1992). "Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces". Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 107-114,, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  2. Grudin, J. (1988). "Why CSCW applications fail: problems in the design and evaluation of organization of organizational interfaces". Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 85-93, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  3. Root, R.W. (1988). "Design of a multi-media vehicle for social browsing". Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 25-38, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  4. Patterson, J.F.; Hill, R.D.; Rohall, S.L.; Meeks, S.W. (1990). "Rendezvous: an architecture for synchronous multi-user applications". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 317-328, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  5. Greenberg, S.; Marwood, D. (1994). "Real time groupware as a distributed system: concurrency control and its effect on the interface". Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 207-217, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  6. Nardi, B.A.; Whittaker, S.; Bradner, E. (2000). "Interaction and outeraction: instant messaging in action". Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 79-88, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  7. Hughes, J.A.; Randall, D.; Shapiro, D. (1992). "Faltering from ethnography to design". Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 115-122, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  8. Tang, J.C.; Isaacs, E.A.; Rua, M. (1994). "Supporting distributed groups with a Montage of lightweight interactions". Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 23-34, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  9. Neuwirth, C.M.; Kaufer, D.S.; Chandhok, R.; Morris, J.H. (1990). "Issues in the design of computer support for co-authoring and commenting". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 183-195, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  10. Crowley, T.; Milazzo, P.; Baker, E.; Forsdick, H.; Tomlinson, R. (1990). "MMConf: an infrastructure for building shared multimedia applications". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 329-342, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  11. Roseman, M.; Greenberg, S. (1992). "GROUPKIT: a groupware toolkit for building real-time conferencing applications". Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 43-50, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  12. Shen, H.H.; Dewan, P. (1992). "Access control for collaborative environments". Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 51-58, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  13. Gaver, W.W. (1992). The affordances of media spaces for collaboration. ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  14. Orlikowski, W.J. (1992). Learning from Notes: organizational issues in groupware implementation. ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  15. Sun, C.; Ellis, C. (1998). "Operational transformation in real-time group editors: issues, algorithms, and achievements". Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 59-68, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  16. Bly, S.A. (1988). "A use of drawing surfaces in different collaborative settings". Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 250-256, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  17. Leland, M.D.P.; Fish, R.S.; Kraut, R.E. (1988). "Collaborative document production using quilt". Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 206-215, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  18. Conklin, J.; Begeman, M.L. (1988). "gIBIS: a hypertext tool for exploratory policy discussion". ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) 6 (4): 303–331. doi:10.1145/58566 (tidak aktif 2008-06-29). Diakses 2007-08-03. 
  19. Bentley, R.; Hughes, J.A.; Randall, D.; Rodden, T.; Sawyer, P.; Shapiro, D.; Sommerville, I. (1992). "Ethnographically-informed systems design for air traffic control". Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 123-129, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  20. Mantei, M. (1988). "Capturing the capture concepts: a case study in the design of computer-supported meeting environments". Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 257-270, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  21. Lantz, K.A. (1986). "An experiment in integrated multimedia conferencing". Proceedings of the 1986 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 267-275, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  22. Harrison, S.; Dourish, P. (1996). "Re-place-ing space: the roles of place and space in collaborative systems". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 67-76, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  23. Roseman, M.; Greenberg, S. (1996). "TeamRooms: network places for collaboration". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 325-333, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  24. Ishii, H. (1990). "TeamWorkStation: towards a seamless shared workspace". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 13-26, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  25. Ressel, M.; Nitsche-ruhland, D.; Gunzenhäuser, R. (1996). "An integrating, transformation-oriented approach to concurrency control and undo in group editors". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 288-297, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  26. Edwards, W.K. (1996). "Policies and roles in collaborative applications". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 11-20, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  27. Bellotti, V.; Bly, S. (1996). "Walking away from the desktop computer: distributed collaboration and mobility in a product design team". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 209-218, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  28. Ackerman, M.S. (1998). "Augmenting Organizational Memory: A Field Study of Answer Garden". ACM Transactions on Information Systems 16 (3): 203–224. doi:10.1145/290159 (tidak aktif 2008-06-29). Diakses 2007-08-03. 
  29. Abbott, K.R.; Sarin, S.K. (1994). "Experiences with workflow management: issues for the next generation". Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 113-120, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  30. Resnick, P.; Iacovou, N.; Suchak, M.; Bergstrom, P.; Riedl, J. (1994). GroupLens: an open architecture for collaborative filtering of netnews. ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  31. Prakash, A.; Shim, H.S. (1994). "DistView: support for building efficient collaborative applications using replicated objects". Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 153-164, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  32. Streitz, N.A.; Gei{ss}ler, J.; Haake, J.M.; Hol, J. (1994). "DOLPHIN: integrated meeting support across local and remote desktop environments and LiveBoards". Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 345-358, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  33. Foster, G.; Stefik, M. (1986). "Cognoter: theory and practice of a colab-orative tool". Proceedings of the 1986 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 7-15, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  34. Shen, C.; Lesh, N.B.; Vernier, F.; Forlines, C.; Frost, J. (2002). "Sharing and building digital group histories". Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 324-333, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  35. Sohlenkamp, M.; Chwelos, G. (1994). "Integrating communication, cooperation, and awareness: the DIVA virtual office environment". Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 331-343, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  36. Olson, J.S.; Teasley, S. (1996). "Groupware in the wild: lessons learned from a year of virtual collocation". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 419-427, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  37. Reder, S.; Schwab, R.G. (1990). "The temporal structure of cooperative activity". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 303-316, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  38. Fish, R.S.; Kraut, R.E.; Chalfonte, B.L. (1990). "The VideoWindow system in informal communication". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 1-11, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  39. Haake, J.M.; Wilson, B. (1992). Supporting collaborative writing of hyperdocuments in SEPIA. ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  40. Hudson, S.E.; Smith, I. (1996). "Techniques for addressing fundamental privacy and disruption tradeoffs in awareness support systems". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 248-257, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  41. MacKay, W.E. (1990). "Patterns of sharing customizable software". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 209-221, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  42. Trigg, R.H.; Suchman, L.A.; Halasz, F.G. (1986). "Supporting collaboration in notecards". Proceedings of the 1986 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work: 153-162, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  43. Patterson, J.F.; Day, M.; Kucan, J. (1996). "Notification servers for synchronous groupware". Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 122-129, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  44. Myers, B.A.; Stiel, H.; Gargiulo, R. (1998). "Collaboration using multiple PDAs connected to a PC". Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 285-294, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  45. Ackerman, M.S.; Halverson, C. (1998). "Considering an organization's memory". Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 39-48, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  46. Teasley, S.; Covi, L.; Krishnan, M.S.; Olson, J.S. (2000). "How does radical collocation help a team succeed?". Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 339-346, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 
  47. Kuzuoka, H.; Kosuge, T.; Tanaka, M. (1994). "GestureCam: a video communication system for sympathetic remote collaboration". Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work: 35-43, ACM Press New York, NY, USA. 

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Grudin, J. (1994). "Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Its History and Participation". Computer 27 (4): 19–26. doi:10.1109/2.291294. 
  2. ^ Carstensen, P.H.; Schmidt, K. (1999). Computer supported cooperative work: new challenges to systems design. Diakses 2007-08-03. 
  3. ^ Wilson, P. (1991). Computer Supported Cooperative Work: An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Pub. 
  4. ^ Baecker, R.M.; Others, (1995). Readings in human-computer interaction: toward the year 2000. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.