Chrysi Avgi

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Chrysi Avgi
Χρυσή Αυγή
Sekretaris jenderal Nikolaos Michaloliakos
Juru bicara Ilias Kasidiaris
Pendiri Nikolaos Michaloliakos
Slogan Greece for the Greeks
Blood, Honour, Golden Dawn
Didirikan 01 November 1993 (1993-11-01)
Kantor pusat Athena, Yunani
Surat kabar Chrysi Avgi
Sayap pemuda Front Pemuda
Ideologi Ultranasionalisme[1][2]
Neo-Nazisme[3]
Rasisme
Posisi politik Ekstrem kanan
Afiliasi Eropa Front Nasional Eropa
Warna resmi Black
Parlemen Yunani
18 / 300
Parlemen Eropa
0 / 22
Regional
0 / 1.662
Munisipalitas
1 / 12.978
Situs web
Situs web resmi Chrysi Avgi
Bendera partai
Meandros flag.svg

Chrysi Avgi (bahasa Yunani: Χρυσή Αυγή, Chrysi Avgi, Pengucapan Yunani: [xriˈsi avˈʝi])[note 1], bahasa Inggris: Golden Dawn) adalah organisasi politik ekstrem sayap kanan[4] di Yunani. Organisasi ini dipimpin oleh Nikolaos Michaloliakos dan telah berkembang pesat semenjak kemunculannya.

Para ahli dan media menyebut organisasi ini sebagai organisasi neo-Nazi[3][5] dan fasis,[6] meskipun mereka menolak label tersebut.[7] Mereka telah menggunakan simbolisme Nazi dan memuji tokoh-tokoh Jerman Nazi.[8][9][10] Menurut sumber akademis, kelompok ini adalah kelompok yang rasis dan xenofobik,[11][12] sementara pemimpin partai secara terbuka mengidentifikasi partainya sebagai nasionalis dan rasis.[13]

Michaloliakos mulai mendirikan cikal bakal Chrysi Avgi pada tahun 1980. Organisasi ini pertama kali mencuri perhatian pada tahun 1991, dan pada tahun 1993 terdaftar sebagai partai politik. Chrysi Avgi menghentikan kegiatan politiknya sementara pada tahun 2005 dan kemudian digabung dengan Aliansi Patriotik. Aliansi ini juga berakhir setelah Michaloliakos menarik dukungannya. Pada Maret 2007, Chrysi Avgi mengadakan kongres keenamnya, dan di dalamnya pejabat-pejabat partai mengumumkan kelanjutan aktivisme politik. Pada pemilihan umum daerah pada 7 November 2010, Chrysi Avgi memperoleh 5,3 persen suara di munisipalitas Athena, dan memenangkan kursi di Dewan Kota. Di beberapa daerah dengan komunitas imigran yang besar, partai ini bahkan memperoleh 20 persen suara.[14]

Partai ini turut serta dalam pemilihan umum legislatif Yunani 2012 dan melancarkan kampanye berdasarkan isu pengangguran, ekonomi, dan retorika anti-imigran, yang semakin banyak didukung.[15] Chrysi Avgi memperoleh tujuh persen suara, sehingga mampu memasuki Parlemen Yunani untuk pertama kalinya dan memperoleh 21 kursi.[16] Setelah pemilihan umum kedua pada bulan Juni, jumlah kursi berkurang menjadi 18 kursi.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Full Name: People's Association - Golden Dawn (bahasa Yunani: Λαϊκός Σύνδεσμος - Χρυσή Αυγή, Laikos Syndesmos - Chrysi Avgi)

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Tsatsanis, Emmanouil (2011), "Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece", Journal of Political Ideologies 16 (1): 11–31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, "...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi)." 
  2. ^ Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (2006), Reputational Shields: Why Most Anti-Immigrant Parties Failed in Western Europe, 1980-2005, Nuffield College, University of Oxford, hlm. 15 
  3. ^ a b
    • Miliopoulos, Lazaros (2011), "Extremismus in Griechenland", Extremismus in den EU-Staaten (dalam bahasa German) (VS Verlag): 154, doi:10.1007/978-3-531-92746-6_9, "...mit der seit 1993 als Partei anerkannten offen neonationalsozialistischen Gruppierung Goldene Mörgenröte (Chryssi Avgí, Χρυσή Αυγή) kooperierte... (...cooperated with the openly neo-National Socialist group Golden Dawn (Chryssi Avgí, Χρυσή Αυγή), which has been recognized as a party since 1993...)" 
    • Davies, Peter; Jackson, Paul (2008), The Far Right in Europe: An Encyclopedia, Greenwood World Press, hlm. 173 
    • Chalk, Peter (2003), "Non-Military Security in the Wider Middle East", Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 26 (3): 197–214, doi:10.1080/10576100390211428, "Reflecting these perceptions has been a growing sub-culture of support for neo-Nazi hate groups such as Troiseme Voie in France, Golden Dawn in Greece, Combat 18 (C18) in the United Kingdom..." 
    • Altsech, Moses (August 2004), "Anti-Semitism in Greece: Embedded in Society", Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism (23): 12, "On 12 March 2004, Chrysi Avghi (Golden Dawn), the new weekly newspaper of the Neo-Nazi organization of that name, cited another survey indicating that the percentage of Greeks who view immigrants unfavorably is 89 percent." 
    • Porat, Dina; Stauber, Roni (2002), Antisemitism Worldwide 2000/1, University of Nebraska Press, hlm. 123, "The neo-Nazi Chrissi Avgi (Golden Daybreak) was the only far right group active in 2000. It was responsible for at least one antisemitic act and for attacks against left-wing targets." 
  4. ^
    • Gemenis, Kostas; Nezi, Roula (January 2012), The 2011 Political Parties Expert Survey in Greece, University of Twente, hlm. 4, "Interestingly, the placement of the extreme right Chrysi Avyi does not seem to be influenced by this bias, although this has more do with the lack of variance in the data (32 out of 33 experts placed the party on 10)..." 
    • Repoussi, Maria (2009), "Battles over the national past of Greeks: The Greek History Textbook Controversy 2006-2007", Geschichte für heute. Zeitschrift für historisch-politische Bildung (1): 5 
    • Grumke, Thomas (2003), "The transatlantic dimension of right-wing extremism", Human Rights Review 4 (4): 56–72, doi:10.1007/s12142-003-1021-x, "On October 24, 1998 the Greek right-wing extremist organization Chrisi Avgi ("Golden Dawn") was the host for the "5th European Youth Congress" in Thessaloniki." 
  5. ^
  6. ^
    • Xenakis, Sappho (2012), "A New Dawn? Change and Continuity in Political Violence in Greece", Terrorism and Political Violence 24 (3): 437–464, doi:10.1080/09546553.2011.633133, "...Nikolaos Michaloliakos, who in the early 1980s established the fascistic far-right party Chrysi Avgi (“Golden Dawn”)." 
    • Smith, Helena (16 December 2011), "Rise of the Greek far right raises fears of further turmoil", The Guardian (London) 
    • Kravva, Vasiliki (2003), "The Construction of Otherness in Modern Greece", The Ethics of Anthropology: Debates and dilemmas (Routledge): 169, "For example, during the summer of 2000 members of Chryssi Avgi, the most widespread fascist organization in Greece, destroyed part of the third cemetery in Athens..." 
  7. ^ Greek far-right leader savors electoral success, Reuters, 6 May 2012, "... the group - which denies it is neo-Nazi - one of the biggest winners in an election..." 
  8. ^ Τα παιδιά του Χίτλερ με στολή «Χρυσής Αυγής» 
  9. ^ "Χρυσή Αυγή" - Αλήθειες και Ψέμματα, 15 May 2012 
  10. ^ Οι φύρερ της διπλανής πόρτας, 8 April 2012 
  11. ^ Sitaropoulos, Nicholas (2004), "Equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin: the transposition in Greece of EU Directive 2000/43", The International Journal of Human Rights 8 (2): 123–158, doi:10.1080/1364298042000240834, "Clearly extreme racist groups are, inter alia, political groups such as 'Chrisi Avgi' and 'Elliniko Metopo'." 
  12. ^ Sotiropoulos, Dimitri A., Formal Weakness and Informal Strength: Civil Society in Contemporary Greece, The London School of Economics and Political Science, hlm. 16, "Firstly, there is a youth organization which is titled “Golden Dawn” (in Greek, “Chryssi Avgi”) and which is explicitly racist and xenophobic..." 
  13. ^ "Greek far-right leader vows to ‘take back’ İstanbul, İzmir", Today's Zaman, 15 June 2012, diakses 12 September 2012 
  14. ^ Kitsantonis, Niki (2010-12-01). "Attacks on Immigrants on the Rise in Greece". New York Times. Diakses 2011-06-27. 
  15. ^ Sportiche, Sophie (7 May 2012). "Q&A: Greece's Golden Dawn". Al Jazeera. 
  16. ^ Cooper, Rob (2012-05-07). "Rise of the Greek neo-Nazis: Ultra-right party Golden Dawn wants to force immigrants into work camps and plant landmines along Turkish border". Daily Mail. 

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